Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) seen here on a German 10 Deutsche Mark banknote was a mathematician, astronomer, scientist noted for least squares, the normal distribution, and number theory. Also known as the Gaussian distribution, the normal distribution is defined by the mean ("average", *μ*) and variance (standard deviation squared, *σ*^{2}). The **standard normal distribution** is the normal distribution with a mean of zero and a variance of one. Common applications include process modeling, queuing theory, safety stock and service level calculations, as was as statistical process control.

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